The European Commission is set to take on Google Books -- the latest report on the Commission's Europeana project, released on Monday, urges European Union member states to digitize collections held in all their libraries, archives, and museums.
Europeana is the E.U.'s digital library and currently offers free access to more than 15 million digitized books, maps, newspapers, paintings, photographs and other artifacts. This puts it in competition with Google Books, which also estimates that it has digitized 15 million books. The main area of concern for Europeana is in so-called "orphan works" material whose potential right-holders are unknown or books that are out of print.
Monday's report recommended that although it is primarily the role of rights-holders to digitize out-of-print works and exploit them, cultural institutions must have a window of opportunity to digitize material and make it available to the public, for which right-holders should be remunerated.
Last year the Commission sought assurances from Google that it would not infringe the copyright of authors. The Internet giant tried to placate publishers saying that it would only display out-of-print translations of works that were still commercially available in Europe with the approval of their copyright holders. It also pledged to make greater efforts to ensure that books are truly out-of-print before making them available in digital form. Currently, Google digitizes only public domain material in Europe, which means pre-1870 works.
Speaking at the launch of the report, Digital Agenda Commissioner Neelie Kroes said that she welcomed the element of competition and that it would most likely lead to a better product. However, she added that member states need to considerably increase their funding for digitization.
"I am not sure that Google Books are doing exactly the same thing as us. We want to give the widest access to the widest audience on a free basis. Europeana is not based on a business model of profitability. This being said we believe that there are opportunities for new players to confront Google," said Maurice Lévy, one of the authors of the report.
In terms of public-private partnerships, the report recommended a period of seven years for any agreement for preferential or exclusive use of the digitized material. This compares favorably with Google Books' 15-year agreements.
With contributions from all E.U. countries, Europeana will have to agree to a standardized file format, however this level of technical cooperation has not yet been agreed to. Nonetheless, the report notes: "Standardized and well-documented file formats can be handled more easily than proprietary formats, but open documentation is not always in the interest of software companies."
Photographs, maps, paintings and images of museum objects make up 64 percent of the Europeana collection. A further 34 percent is dedicated to texts, including more than 1.2 million complete books that can downloaded. These include rare manuscripts with the earliest printed books from before 1500.