Switching to a solid-state drive is the best upgrade you can make for your PC. These wondrous devices obliterate long boot times, speed up how fast your programs and games load, and generally makes your computer feel fast. But not all solid-state drives are created equal. The best SSDs offer solid performance at affordable prices—or, if price is no object, face-meltingly fast read and write speeds.
SSD cheat sheet
Our quick-hit recommendations:
Many SSDs come in a 2.5-inch form factor and communicate with PCs via the same SATA ports used by traditional hard drives. But out on the bleeding-edge of NVMe (Non-Volatile Memory Express) drives, you’ll find tiny “gumstick” SSDs that fit in M.2 connections on modern motherboards, SSDs that sit on a PCIe adapter and slot into your motherboard like a graphics card or sound card, futuristic 3D Xpoint drives, and more. Picking the perfect SSD isn’t as simple as it used to be.
That’s where this guide comes in. We’ve tested numerous drives to find the best SSDs for any use case. Let’s take a look at PCWorld’s top picks, and then dive into what to look for in an SSD. Quick note: This roundup only covers internal solid-state drives. Check out PCWorld’s guide to the best external drives if you’re looking for a portable storage solution.
Updated August 8, 2018 to crown the Intel SSD 660p, the first consumer QLC SSD, the best budget NVMe and add recent SSD news.
Latest SSD news
- SSDs are about to get a whole lot bigger and a whole lot cheaper. Today’s consumer SSDs mostly use triple-level cell (TLC) NAND, which stores three bits of data per cell. but Intel and Micron have started production of denser quad-level cell NAND, an announcement that resulted in similar proclamations from Samsung, Toshiba, and Western Digital. The first QLC-based SSD, Intel's 660p, launched on August 7 at $100 for 512GB or $200 for 1TB.
- Not all is rosy in Intel and Micron’s relationship though. The companies announced that they’ll stop jointly developing 3D XPoint in the first half of 2019. 3D XPoint is the revolutionary storage technology inside Intel’s blazing-fast Optane SSDs. Now for the good news: Both companies plan to continue development, based on their “respective product and business needs.”
- Western Digital announced it will close its HDD factory near Kuala Lumpur in 2019. The company will focus on SSD production instead, reflecting lower demand for mechanical storage.
Best SSD for most people
The Samsung 850 EVO served as our go-to SSD recommendation ever since it debuted in 2014, but after a long reign at the top, the company replaced the legendary drive with the Samsung 860 EVO in 2018. The replacement isn’t quite as revolutionary as its predecessor but nevertheless claims the throne as the best SSD for most people.
The Samsung 860 EVO isn’t the fastest SSD you can buy—that honor goes to advanced drives that transfer data over PCI-E rather than the traditional SATA interface—but it’s the fastest triple-layer cell (TLC) SATA drive we’ve tested, albeit by a small margin. More importantly, it’s solved the slow write performance plaguing many other SSDs that use TLC NAND chips. We copied a whopping 80GB of data in one test and the EVO stayed strong the entire time, rather than bogging down after exceeding its cache.
Costs crept slightly upwards with the new generation of hardware, but the Samsung 860 EVO still offers a compelling blend of price, performance, and capacity that few SSDs can match, backed by a long five-year warranty and Samsung’s superb Magician SSD software for easy-peasy drive installation and maintenance. And as a 2.5-inch SATA-based drive, the Samsung 860 EVO should have no problems slipping into most desktops or laptops, unlike exotic M.2 and PCIe SSDs. (The drive is also available in the M.2 form factor however.)
The 500GB Samsung 860 EVO ($120 on Amazon) is probably the best option for most people, but it’s also available in 250GB, 1TB, 2TB, and 4TB models. Prices for SSDs start to get staggering once you hit 1TB or more of capacity, though. Most people would be better off buying the 500GB version and pairing it (if need be) with a high-capacity traditional hard drive like the Western Digital Blue lineup ($50 for 1TB on Amazon).
But other SSDs are challenging the Samsung 860 EVO. The Sandisk Ultra 3D ($100 for 500GB on Amazon) is another solid option. The Sandisk Ultra 3D’s three-year warranty lags behind the five-year warranty of the Samsung drives, though. The WD Blue 3D NAND SATA SSD ($100 on Amazon) is essentially the same SSD as the Sandisk Ultra 3D, but sold with a different label and in another form factor (M.2).
Seagate’s Barracuda SSD, meanwhile, is even faster than the 860 EVO in many situations but suffers from occasional brief, bizarre performance dips. That’s a bit unsettling, but Seagate offers a generous five-year warranty with the drive. It’s available in 250GB for $70, 500GB for $105, 1TB for $200, and 2TB for $450. Maybe avoid that last one.
Samsung also offers the Samsung 860 Pro, but the Samsung 860 EVO is nearly as fast. The only reason to opt for the Pro model is if you you’re concerned about longevity or write far more data daily than the average user, as it offers a best-in-class endurance rating. You pay for the peace of mind, though. A 256GB model costs $117 on Newegg, while a 512GB model sells for $208. You’ll also find 1TB, 2TB, and 4TB Samsung 860 Pro drives available—the latter for a staggering $1,695.
Best budget SSD
If you’re looking for a solid, easy-to-install SATA SSD but don’t want to spend a lot of money, check out the Crucial BX300. It’s one of the fastest budget-friendly drives we’ve tested.
Many cheap SSDs use triple-level cell (TLC) NAND chips that can peter out on the performance front when you’re transferring a lot of files and exceed the drive’s cache. (More on that in the buying guide section.) The Crucial BX300 uses multi-level cell (MLC) NAND that sidesteps the issue, so it delivers consistent transfer speeds even when you’ve moving over large batches of files. The three-year warranty isn’t great, but it isn’t bad either.
The price is certainly right though, especially if you’re planning to pair your SSD with a mechanical hard drive. On Amazon, you can grab a 120GB model for just $60 and a 240GB model for $73. There’s also a 480GB BX300 for $120, but in that price range, consider a Samsung 860 EVO or SanDisk Ultra 3D instead.
Best NVMe SSD
If performance is paramount, the Samsung 970 Pro is the best NVMe SSD you can buy, backed by Samsung’s excellent Magician SSD management software—but most people should buy Western Digital’s WD Black 3D NVMe SSD instead. This ludicrously fast drive roars past SATA-based SSDs in sustained read/write tests and delivers much the same performance as the chart-topping 960 Pro. But it does so for significantly less cash: $200 less in the 1TB capacity. It’s available on Amazon at $120 for 250GB capacity, $200 for 500GB, and $400 for $1TB.
The SanDisk Extreme Pro M.2 NVMe 3D SSD (phew!) is the exact same drive as the WD Black 3D, sold under a different brand. If you can find it at a lower price, snag it instead.
The Samsung 970 EVO largely mirrors the WD Black 3D’s pricing and performance, though Western Digital’s drive holds a slight speed advantage at lower capacities. If you’re looking to pick up an NVMe SSD with 1TB of capacity or more, it’s a draw. Choose whichever you can find for cheaper.
Best budget NVMe SSD
NVMe drives are finally starting to go mainstream, and thanks to the advancements of the Intel SSD 660p, the first consumer solid-state drive based on quad-level cell (QLC) NAND, you can now get an NVMe SSD for the same price as a SATA drive. Does this herald the end of mechanical hard drives?
The Intel 660p SSD costs just $100 for 512GB or $200 for 1TB of capacity, though only the 512GB model is available at this time. Even better, the 1TB version turns in speedy read and write speeds that exceed even the fastest SATA drives, and the Intel 660p is faster than any other budget NVMe we've tested. (Be warned: The 512GB version of the Intel 660p is significantly slower than the 1TB model we tested—about half as fast. That's because it uses a single memory chip rather than two.) Intel also provides a lengthy five-year warranty.
That said, the Intel 660p has a flaw, though it’s not one that will affect many people often. If you’re writing or copying a large amount of data and exceed the Intel 660p's variable cache, write speeds plummet to hard drive-like results. The exact amount of data you'll need to move to hit that limit varies due to how the SSD's dynamic cache behaves—the more data you're storing on the drive, the less cache is available. It won't affect most use cases though. We encountered it after copying more than 80GB of files at once. If that's concerning, we've seen the Kingston A100 selling for slightly more than the 660p on Amazon, at $113 for 480GB or $220 for 960GB. It's slower than Intel's drive though.
If performance is paramount and price is no object, Intel’s Optane SSD 900P is the best SSD you can buy, full stop. The drive doesn’t use traditional NAND technology like other SSDs; instead, it’s built around the futuristic 3D Xpoint technology developed by Micron and Intel. Hit that link if you want a tech deep-dive, but in practical terms, the Optane SSD 900P absolutely plows through our storage benchmarks and carries a ridiculous 8,750TBW (terabytes written) rating, compared to the roughly 200TBW offered by many NAND SSDs. If that holds true, this blazing-fast drive is basically immortal—and it looks damned good, too.
But you pay for the privilege of bleeding edge performance. Intel’s Optane SSD 900P costs $390 for a 280GB version and $600 for a 480GB model. That’s significantly more expensive than even NVMe SSDs—and like those, the benefits of Intel’s SSD will be most obvious to people who move large amounts of data around regularly. And the Optane SSD 900P actually uses the NVMe protocol to communicate with your PC, so you’ll need to meet some additional criteria to be able to boot from it—which we’ll cover next.
The step-down Intel SSD 800P ($129 for 58GB, $199 for 118GB on Newegg) isn’t anywhere near as compelling a purchase despite being far more affordable. It still offers best-in-class longevity and very fast random file access, but the 800P delivers mundane results in other performance areas, and it’s crippled by low capacities and sky-high prices. Grab one of our other top SSD picks or Samsung’s 960 EVO ($110 for 256GB on Amazon) instead.
NVMe SSD setup: What you need to know
Be aware of what NVMe drives deliver before you buy in. Standard SATA SSDs already supercharge boot times and loading times for PCs, and for a whole lot cheaper. You’ll get the most use from NVMe drives, be it in a M.2 form factor like the Samsung 960 Pro or a PCIe drive, if you routinely transfer data, especially in large amounts. If you don’t do that, NVMe drives aren’t worth the price premium.
If you decide to buy an NVMe SSD, make sure your PC can handle it. This is a relatively new technology, so you’ll only be able to find M.2 connections motherboards from the past few years. Think AMD Ryzen and mainstream Intel chips from the Skylake era onward, for the most part. NVMe SSDs that were mounted on PCIe adapters were popular in the technology’s early years, before M.2 adoption spread, but they’re rarer now. Make sure you’re actually able to use an NVMe SSD before you buy one, and be aware that you’ll need 4 PCIe lanes available in order to use it to its full potential.
To get the most out of an NVMe drive, you want to run your operating system on it, so you must have a system that recognizes the drive and can boot from it. PCs purchased during the past year or two should have no problem booting from an NVMe drive, but support for that can be iffy in older motherboards. Do a Google search for your motherboard and see if it supports booting from NVMe. You may need to install a BIOS update for your board. If your hardware can’t boot from an NVMe SSD, your machine should still be able to use it as a secondary drive.
What to look for in an SSD
Capacity and price are important, of course, and a long warranty can alleviate fears of premature data death. Most SSD manufacturers offer a three-year warranty, and some nicer models are guaranteed for five years. But unlike the olden days of SSDs, modern drives won’t wear out with normal consumer usage, as Tech Report tested and proved years ago with a grueling endurance test.
The biggest thing to watch out for is the technology used to connect the SSD to your PC.
- SATA: This refers to both the connection type and the transfer protocol, which is used to connect most 2.5-inch and 3.5-inch hard drives and SSDs to your PC. SATA III speeds can hit roughly 600MBps, and most—but not all—modern drives max it out. (More on that in the next section.)
- PCI-E: This interface taps into four of your computer’s PCIe lanes to blow away SATA speeds, to the tune of nearly 4GBps over PCIe gen. 3. Those sort of face-melting speeds pair nicely with supercharged NVMe drives. Both the PCIe lanes in your motherboard and the M.2 slot in your motherboard can be wired to support the PCIe interface, and you can buy adapters that allow you to slot “gumstick” M.2 drives into a PCIe lane.
- NVMe: Non-Volatile Memory Express technology takes advantage of PCIe’s bountiful bandwidth to create blisteringly fast SSDs that blow SATA-based drives out of the water. Check out PCWorld’s “Everything you need to know about NVMe” for a nitty-gritty deep-dive.
- M.2: This is where things get tricky. Many people assume M.2 drives all use NVMe technology and PCIe speeds, but that’s not true. M.2 is just a form factor. Sure, most M.2 SSDs use NVMe, but some still stick to SATA. Do your homework. Many modern Ultrabooks rely on M.2 for storage.
- U.2 and mSATA: You may also stumble across mSATA and U.2 SSDs, but both motherboard support and product availability are rare for those formats. Some older Ultrabooks included mSATA before M.2 became popular, and drives are still available if you need them.
Speed matters, of course, but as we said most modern SSDs saturate the SATA III interface. Not all of them, though. About that…
Buyer beware: TLC vs MLC vs SLC SSDs
We’re starting to see more SSDs that use triple-level cell (TLC) NAND technology. TLC can store three bits per cell. By comparison, one bit single-layer cell (SLC) SSDs offer the best performance at the cost of higher prices and lower capacities, and multi-level cell (MLC) SSDs store two bits per cell.
TLC drives offer greater data density, in other words, which in turn can be used to increase the capacity of SSDs, or offer standard SSD capacities at lower prices. But TLC’s sustained write performance is comparatively poor—in some cases exceedingly. If you move large amounts of data, transfer speeds for these drives can fall off a cliff once you’ve exceeded the SSD’s cache.
The problem isn’t universal, and it won’t matter if you don’t move big batches of files, but storage makers don’t advertise this potentially crippling SSD problem. We’ve witnessed the behavior in numerous SSDs, including the Toshiba TR200 and Q300 as well as the older OCZ Trion 100. Heck, even the TLC-packing Crucial BX200 suffers from the issue—and its MLC-equipped sibling the BX300 is our favorite budget drive! Stick to our tried and tested picks for the best SSD rather than rolling the dice on a cheap clunker.
SSDs vs. hard drives
Do you need an SSD? “Need” is a strong word, but we heartily recommend that everyone upgrade to an SSD. Solid-state drive speeds blow even the fastest mechanical hard drives out of the water. Simply swapping the hard drive in your old laptop or desktop out for an SSD can make it feel like a whole new system—and a blazing fast one at that. Buying an SSD is easily the best upgrade you can make for a computer.
SSDs cost more per gigabyte than mechanical hard drives, though, and thus aren’t often available in ultra-high capacities. If you want speed and storage space, you can buy an SSD with limited space (like the 128GB Crucial BX300) and use it as your boot drive, then set up a traditional hard drive as secondary storage in your PC. Place your programs on your boot drive, stash your media and other files on the hard drive, and you’re ready to have your cake and eat it too.
Alternatively, Intel’s new Optane drives blend both worlds. These tiny, affordable M.2 drives are designed to pair with a hard drive in your system and act as a cache, speeding up the most-used programs on your PC. Intel’s tech can truly supercharge your everyday experience, but once you blow past the M.2 drive’s 16GB or 32GB of cache, you’re back to pokey hard drive speeds. Optane also has strict configuration and supported hardware requirements. Check out PCWorld’s Intel Optane memory review for the full details.
Best SSDs: Our reviews
If you’d like to know more about our best SSD picks as well as other options, the links below point you toward all the SSDs we’ve recently reviewed. We’ll keep evaluating new ones on a regular basis, so be sure to check back to see what other drives we’ve put through their paces. And once more, if you’re looking for portable storage, check out PCWorld’s roundup of the best external drives.